- Biomes and climate - Types of biomes - The effect of climate on biomes
Biomes have a large geographical biotic community controlled by climate. They are usually named after vegetation, so you have deciduous forest or grassland biomes.
The climate of an area is the description of the average temperature and precipitation that can be expected during any given time of the year. Climates vary widely. Equatorial climates are warm, humid and have high rainfall with no distinct seasons. As you move further away from the equator, north and south, seasons become distinct with warm summers and cool winters. The further you go to the poles, the colder it gets. Colder temperatures also occur at higher elevations like mountain tops.
Examples of biomes include deserts, grasslands, tropical rain forests, coniferous forests, tundra and more. Varying biomes have different climates, soils, vegetation, and animal life, and are located in different areas.
For example, in a tropical rainforest, you will have non-seasonal temperatures with a lot of heavy rainfall and no distinct seasons. There are many types of evergreen trees with dense canopies. Tropical rainforests are rich in biodiversity with exotic insects, birds, monkeys, tigers, jaguars and more. They are located in many parts of the world including Central America, western central Africa, islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, southeast Asia and northern South America.
Climate affects the type of biome with moisture being the most important factor. With more moisture, a forest will be supported.
Climate conditions in a specific localized area are referred to as the microclimate of that area. Temperature, soil type and topography influence biome diversity in terms of both plant and animal life. Some biomes and ecosystems are more productive in supporting more life than others. Tropical rainforests are highly productive.
Open oceans account for 65% of the world's surface but the rate of production supporting life is lower. Production is limited to nutrient supply.